磷脂酸

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磷脂酸(Phosphatidic acid,縮寫PA)是一種常見的磷脂,也是細胞膜的組成成分。磷脂酸是最簡單的二醯基甘油磷脂。[1]

目錄

結構

磷脂酸分子含有甘油骨架,甘油的1號位羥基飽和脂醯基取代,2號位羥基被不飽和脂醯基取代,3號位羥基則被磷酸基團取代

        CH2-OP(O)(OH)2   其中 R1- 和 R2- 为烃基
        |               (R1-CO- 和 R2-CO- 称为酰基[1][2])
R2-CO-O-CH
        |
R1-CO-O-CH2

產生和降解

從頭合成外磷脂酸還可通過如下三種途徑產生:

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磷脂酸可在磷脂水解酶(LPPs)催化下被降解為二醯甘油[5][6]也可在磷脂酶A(PLA)催化下降解為溶血磷脂酸

細胞中的功能

磷脂酸在細胞中的角色主要如下:

參考資料

  1. 1.0 1.1 William W. Christie. Phosphatidic Acid, Lysophosphatidic Acid and Related Lipids. 4/10/2009 [5 November 2009]. 
  2. Schroeder, R.; London, E.; Brown, D.. Interactions between saturated acyl chains confer detergent resistance on lipids and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins: GPI-anchored proteins in liposomes and cells show similar behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. December 1994, 91 (25): 12130-12134. 
  3. Liscovitch M, Czarny M, Fiucci G, Tang X. Phospholipase D: molecular and cell biology of a novel gene family. Biochem. J.. February 2000, 345 Pt 3: 401–15. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3450401. PMID 10642495. 
  4. Devlin, T. M. 2004. Bioquímica, 4ª edición. Reverté, Barcelona. ISBN 84-291-7208-4
  5. Brindley DN, Waggoner DW. Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and signal transduction. Chem. Phys. Lipids. May 1996, 80 (1-2): 45–57. doi:10.1016/0009-3084(96)02545-5. PMID 8681429. 
  6. Brindley DN, Waggoner DW. Mammalian lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases. J. Biol. Chem.. September 1998, 273 (38): 24281–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.38.24281. PMID 9733709. 
  7. Delon C, Manifava M, Wood E, et al.. Sphingosine kinase 1 is an intracellular effector of phosphatidic acid. J. Biol. Chem.. October 2004, 279 (43): 44763–74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M405771200. PMID 15310762. 

參考來源

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